Posted in Costing, Garment

Sewing Production Calculations

(1) To calculate the number of machine necessary for daily production quantity in each process.

The number of machines necessary for each process,

      Time for each process X daily production quantity
………………………………………………………..
Work time per dayExample: For dirt sewing

  • Process time …………………………..0.76 min.
  • Work time per shift …………………480 min.
  • Production quantity per shift….400 pcs.

0.76 X 400
So, The number of machines necessary for each process = …………………
480

The number machine necessary for sewing dirts = 0.63 = 1 machine (ANS)

(2) The number of the machine you need will be calculated by applying the value obtained in (1) to the configuration (process composition).

In each park and each kind of machine. When you establish process composition, consideration to the layout which allows the works in process to run smoothly between lines must be taken.

(3) Calculation method of the number of the required machine according to the different of production quantity per shift or the number of persons

The number of required machine should be originally calculated in the way as above-stated in (1).

But there is a simplified calculation method by using MACHNE LIST and BASIC DATA described in this document.

(4) Calculation method of the number of required machines according to the difference of production quantity per shift

The number of required machine,

                                                  Production quantity per shift after change
= The number of each machine X …………………………………………….
Production quantity per shiftEXAMPLE:

  • The number of DDL-555ON-7 –WB/CP230/AK-85…………………8 machines
  • Production quantity per shift …………………………………………200 pcs.
  • Production quantity per shift after change…………………………….120 pcs.

120 pcs
The number of required machine = 8 machine X …………
200 pcs

= 4.8 = 5 machine (ANS)

(5) Calculation method of the number of required machine according to the difference of persons
The number of required machine,

                                                 The machine of persons per shift after change
= The number of each machine X …………………………………………………
The number of personEXAMPLE:

  • The number of DDL-555ON-7-WB/CP230/AK-85 …………8 machines
  • Number of persons per shift ………….………………….45 persons
  • Number of persons per shift after change……………………100 persons

100 persons
The number of required machines = 8 machine X ……………
45 persons

= 17.7 = 18 machines (ANS)

(6) Calculation method of the production quantity per year according to the different of work days per year.  The production quantity per year is calculated on the basis of 280 days per year in this document. When the number of work days per year is different, use the following formula to obtain the production per year.

The production quantity per year,

                                      Work days per year after change
= Production per year X ……………………………..………
280 daysEXAMPLE: .

  • Production quantity per year …………………..……………56,000 PCS.
  • Work days per year after change ……………………………250 days

250 days
The production quantity per year = 56,000 pcs. X ……………..
280 days

= 50,000 pcs . (ANS)

(7) Method of the number of persons according to the difference of production quantity per shift

Production quantity per shift after change
The number of persons = Number of persons X ……………………………………………
Production quantity per shift

EXAMPLE:

  • The number of persons ……………………………..45 Persons
  • Production quantity per shift …………………….500 pcs.
  • Production quantity per shift after change ………………………850 pcs.

850 pcs.
The number of persons = 45 persons X …………
500 pcs.

= 76.5 = 77 persons (ANS)

(8) Calculation method of production quantity per shift according to the different of the number of persons

From (formula 2),

Production quantity per shift,

                                                The number of persons after change
 = Production quantity per shift X ………………………………………..
The number of personsEXAMPLE:

  • Production quantity per shift in BASIC DATA ………………500 pcs.
  • The number of persons in BASIC DATA ……………………….75 persons
  • The number of person after change ……………………………100 persons

100 persons
The production quantity per shift = 500 pcs. X ……………………
75 persons

= 666.7 =  666 pcs. (ANS)

(9) Simplified calculation method of the required floor space according to the difference of total number of required equipment

The required floor space = (required floor space per 1 finishing equipment X total number of sewing equipment) + (required floor space per 1 finishing equipment X total number of finishing equipment)

EXAMPLE:

  • Required floor space per 1 sewing equipment …………..about 6 m2
  • Total number of sewing equipment ……………………………187 machines
  • Required floor space per 1 finishing equipment …………about 10 m2
  • Total number of finishing equipment ………………………….20 machines

Required floor space,

= (6 m2 /1 machine X 187 machine) + (10 m2 /1 machine X 20 machines)

= 1,322 m2 (ANS)

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Posted in Garment

Linen care

Linen is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant, Linum usitatissimum. Linen is labor intensive to manufacture, but when it is made into garments, it is valued for its exceptional coolness and freshness in hot weather. It is superior to cotton in this regard.[citation needed][who?]

Textiles in linen weave pattern made of cotton, hemp and other non-flax fibers may also be loosely, if improperly, referred to as “linen”. Such fabrics generally have their own specific names other than linen, for example, fine cotton yarn in linen weave is called Madapolam.

The collective term linens is still often used generically to describe a class of woven and evenknitted bed, bath, table and kitchen textiles. The name linens is retained because traditionally, linen was used for many of these items. In the past, the word “linens” was also used to mean lightweight undergarments such as shirts, chemises, waistshirts, lingerie, and detachable shirt collars and cuffs, which were manufactured almost exclusively of linen.

Linen textiles appear to be some of the oldest in the world: their history goes back many thousands of years. Fragments of straw, seeds, fibers, yarns, and various types of fabrics which date back to about 8000 B.C. have been found in Swiss lake dwellings. Linen was used in the Mediterranean in the pre-Christian age.

Linen was sometimes used as currency in ancient Egypt. Egyptian mummies were wrapped in linen because it was seen as a symbol of light and purity, and as a display of wealth. Some of these fabrics, woven from hand spun yarns, were extremely fine, and cannot be matched by modern spinning techniques.

Today linen is usually an expensive textile, and is produced in relatively small quantities. It has a long “staple” (individual fiber length) relative to cotton and other natural fibers.

Before laundering your linen, please, read carefully the instructions on our product information sheet or on the care label attached.
Here you will find a few suggestions that will help you retain the beauty and long life of your linen.

Washing Tips

Linen just loves to be washed and ironed. The more linen is washed the softer, nicer and shinier it becomes.

First, use the right washing agents. The detergents that contain bleaching agents are perfect for white linen but should not be used for washing colored linen or else your linen would get discolored or spotted. Only bleach-free detergents must be used for washing colored articles. Use pure soap or gentle detergents. Soap works best in soft water. Never use chlorine bleaches to avoid damage to the fiber. Only oxygen-type bleaches should be used for white linen laundering. However, no bleach should be used when washing spun, colored or embroidered linen.

If the water you use is hard due to a high lime content add a softening agent, especially for darker-colored articles. Use plenty of water because linen is very water-absorbent. Water temperature should be selected according to the care instructions attached to your linen article. If the temperature exceeds the recommended maximum temperature it may lead to fabric shrinkage.

Never wash darker-colored pieces together with lighter-colored articles – if you do, you risk spoiling both.

Do not overload your washing machine, so linen can move freely – if you do, the fabric color may get streaked. When machine washing, put delicate or fringed items in a pillowcase or a net bag to reduce wear and tear.

Whether washing by hand or by machine, linen items have to be thoroughly rinsed in plenty of water to remove all soap, detergent and residual soil and prevent the formation of the so-called age spots due to the oxidation effect.

Do not soak, boil off, rub or wring out embroidered articles.

When washing colored embroidered articles, add a touch of salt. Also add a touch of vinegar when rinsing colored linen – that will help prevent color fading.

Remove stains when still fresh. If allowed to set, stains may be hard, if impossible, to remove at a later date (for more information see our Stain Removal Tips below).

If you take your linens to an outside laundry, don’t forget to tell them that your articles are linen-made.

Drying Tips

Do not wring out linen before drying. Whatever drying method you choose – line drying, tumbler drying or lying out on a terry towel – make sure your linen articles are slightly damp before ironing. That will make your subsequent ironing job easier. Drying white linen in the sun helps retain the original white color. It is a good idea to lay out your laundered item, pull it into shape and pat it flat to minimize wrinkles and thereby save your ironing time. Over-drying leads to the loss of the natural moisture content and makes linen brittle. Over-dried items restore their natural moisture content after re-absorbing moisture from the air.

Ironing Tips

As it has just been pointed ou,t ironing is easier when the laundered items are still slightly damp. Be sure that the soleplate of your iron is clean and smooth. If you have a steam iron check out the soleplate for mineral deposits – they can cause brown spotting. Use well-padded boards with smooth heat-reflective covers – it will reduce your ironing time. Iron linen articles until they are smooth but not dry, then hang or spread them out to become bone-dry.

If you postpone ironing until some later time put laundered items in a plastic bag and place it in the refrigerator or a freezer from 6 to 24 hours. It will help them remain damp and prevent mildew formation.

For extra crispness spray the laundered items, especially napkins, with starch and iron at a medium to hot setting – it will allow you to fold napkins into a variety of fancy shapes. If you prefer a softer look, use spray-on fabric sizing.

In case of light-colored linens, iron on the wrong side first, then on the right side to bring out the sheen. As regards dark-colored articles, iron on the wrong side only.

When ironing embroidered linen, keep the embroidery stitches rounded and dimensional and iron on the wrong side on a soft terry towel to avoid the risk of flattening it out. Special care should be taken while ironing delicate lace and cutwork to avoid tearing it with the iron – use a press cloth to safeguard against it. Press cloth also helps to avoid press marks over seams, hems and pockets.

Do not iron on a patterned cloth because there is a risk that it may get imprinted on the embroidery. Do not fold up the items just ironed – they should be kept spread out for some time to dry.

Place a table next to the ironing board when ironing large items such as tablecloths. Roll finished sections of the cloth over the table rather than letting it pile up under the ironing board. You can prevent tablecloth creasing by rolling the tablecloth around a tube as you continue ironing.

Dry Cleaning Tips

If care instructions provide for both dry cleaning and washing the choice is entirely yours. If you prefer dry cleaning to laundering, turn to dry cleaners who work on the premises. It would be also a good idea to find out whether solvents are regularly changed. If they are not, there is a risk that your white linens may turn gray or yellow.

Storage Tips

Linen is best stored in a cool, dry and well-ventilated area. Always launder or dry-clean linen before storing to prevent mildew growth. If mildew does strike, brush the mold off outdoors to avoid spore scattering in your house, soak the item in an oxygen-bleach water solution, launder it and dry in the sun. Use pure linen, cotton or muslin and acid-free paper to protect against dust or as bags. Do not use synthetics or regular tissue paper, plastic bags, cedar chests or cardboard boxes for storing your linens. If linen articles are stored for a long time, refold them from time to time

Posted in Garment

Silk care

Silk is a natural protein fibre, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. The best-known type of silk is obtained from cocoons made by the larvae of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori reared in captivity (sericulture). The shimmering appearance for which silk is prized comes from the fibers’ triangular prism-like structure which allows silk cloth to refract incoming light at different angles.

“Wild silks” are produced by caterpillars other than the mulberry silkworm and can be artificially cultivated. A variety of wild silks have been known and used in ChinaSouth Asia, and Europe since early times, but the scale of production was always far smaller than that of cultivated silks. They differ from the domesticated varieties in color and texture, and cocoons gathered in the wild usually have been damaged by the emerging moth before the cocoons are gathered, so the silk thread that makes up the cocoon has been torn into shorter lengths. Commercially reared silkworm pupae are killed by dipping them in boiling water before the adult moths emerge, or by piercing them with a needle, allowing the whole cocoon to be unraveled as one continuous thread. This permits a much stronger cloth to be woven from the silk. Wild silks also tend to be more difficult to dye than silk from the cultivated silkworm.

There is some evidence that small quantities of wild silk were already being produced in the Mediterranean area and the Middle East by the time the stronger, cultivated silk from China began to be imported (Hill 2003, Appendix C).

Silks are produced by several other insects, but only the silk of moth caterpillars has been used for textile manufacture. There has been some research into other silks, which differ at the molecular level. Silks are mainly produced by the larvae of insects that complete metamorphosis, but also by some adult insects such as webspinners. Silk production is especially common in the Hymenoptera (beeswasps, and ants), and is sometimes used in nest construction. Other types of arthropod produce silk, most notably variousarachnids such as spiders (see spider silk).

Care symbol  label

Gentle in order to preserve its qualities.  Hand wash in cool water: use mild soap powders.  Sensitive to heat (therefore colorfast problems)  and rough treatment. Wash color separately.  Prints: dry flat. Do not soak. Creases.

Posted in Garment

Viscose care

Viscose is a viscous organic liquid used to make rayon and cellophaneCellulose from wood or cotton fibres is treated with sodium hydroxide, then mixed with carbon disulfide to form cellulose xanthate, which is dissolved in more sodium hydroxide. The resulting viscose is extruded into an acid bath either through a slit to make cellophane, or through a spinneret to make rayon. The acid converts the viscose back into cellulose. Viscose was first used for coating fabrics, a purpose for which it is quite suitable. However, when Cross and his partners tried to make solid objects like umbrella handles they were found to be much too brittle.

Further development led to viscose being spun into thread for embroidery and trimmings. Eventually, after Samuel Courtauld & Co. had taken over in 1904, Viscose manufacture became big business. By the twenties and thirties it had almost completely replaced the traditional cotton and wool for women’s stockings and underwear. Similar changes occurred in the US and in Europe, too. Viscose was also being used for linings and furnishing fabrics; providing the staple for towels and table-cloths and was being made into high tenacity yarn for tires. Yet other uses included the manufacture of sponges and absorbent cloths.

Making viscose film had been tried by Cross in the 1890s but it was in Switzerland and France that major successes were achieved. By 1913 C.T.A. established La Cellophane SA. Ten years later DuPont Cellophane Co. was set up in the USA and in 1935 British Cellophane Ltd was established in BridgwaterSomerset.

Viscose is a soft material, used in mostly tops, coats and jackets.

Viscose is currently becoming less common because of the polluting effects of carbon disulfide and other by-products of the process, forcing the Bridgwater factory to close in 2005.

Viscose is used mainly for fine, fashionable articles and linings.


Whilst in general dry cleaning is recommended for suits and jackets, it is possible to wash blouses and other garments without problems at home – provided it says so on the  care symbol. As long as you take note of the symbols on the care label and of the instructions that follow below, your “best things” will be like new and with you for a long time.

Pre-sorting prevents colours running.
Coloureds and prints should always be washed separately from other articles.

Use fine detergents.
Do not use chlorine bleach.

Half loads give the best wash.
Best results are obtained in terms of cleaning and minimal creasing where the drum or hand-wash solution are at a maximum 50% capacity.

A gentle wash cycle is the ultimate.
Viscose articles do not need or want anything in excess of a cycle at 40°C maximum. A gentle spin will suffice.

Viscose is self-drying.
Clothing is best hung up damp and pulled into shape.

A little ironing is a good thing.
Viscose articles may be pressed using a moderately hot steam iron.

Posted in Garment

Garment Care Symbols

DRY CLEANING SYMBOLS

Dry Clean

This is the dry cleaning symbol, but the symbol itself doesn’t tell the full story. There should be an additional letter inside the circle, indicating what type of dry cleaning a garment can be put through. In addition, the bar underneath the symbol gives additional information.

Symbol

Meaning

Instruction

Material Types

Dry Clean

Dry Clean Articles cleanable in all normally available dry cleaning solvents, using any solvent, cycle, moisture & heat.
Wool, cotton, rayon, linen, polyester and nylon.

Dry Clean (Not Trichloroethylene)

Dry Clean (Not Trichloroethylene) Fabrics which are stable in perchloroethylene, and hydrocarbons, without restriction. Wool, cotton, rayon, linen, polyester and nylon, where restrictions on agitation are not indicated.

Dry Clean (Not Trichloroethylene)

Dry Clean (Not Trichloroethylene) Garments cleanable in the above range but with restrictions on heat, water addition and agitation. Acrylics, polyesters and silks where weaves, surfaces or fibre mixes make garments or fabrics sensitive to treatment.

Dry Clean (Petroleum Solvent)

Dry Clean (Petroleum Solvent) Articles cleanable in hydrocarbons (white spirit) and solvent 113 using normal dry cleaning techniques. Garments where surfaces, additions or materials are sensitive to cleaning solvents or heat.

Dry Clean (Petroleum Solvent)

Dry Clean (Petroleum Solvent) Fabrics sensitive in normal cleaning solvents but with further restrictions on water addition, agitation and heat. Any fabric with this symbol is very sensitive to heat and movement. It should be cleaned in a bag and not pre or post treated.

Dry Clean (Short Cycle)

Dry Clean (Short Cycle) Dry clean using the short cycle.
Dry Clean (Reduced Moisture)
Dry Clean (Reduced Moisture) Dry clean using reduced moisture

Dry Clean (Low Heat)

Dry Clean (Low Heat) Dry clean on a low heat setting

Dry Clean (No Steam)

Dry Clean (No Steam) Dry clean using no steam

Do Not Dry Clean

Do Not Dry Clean DO NOT DRY CLEAN Polyolefins: Items with special finishes or additions

IRONING SYMBOLS

Iron (Normal)

The ironing symbol lets you know that you can iron a garment or fabric. However the dots let you know what temperature you can iron at.

Symbol

Meaning

Instruction

Material Types

Iron (Normal)

Iron (Normal)

Garments may be ironed at any temperature, using steam or dry.

Iron (Low Heat)

Iron (Low Heat)

Garments may be ironed using steam or dry, at Low setting, 110°C (230°F), only.

Acrylic, nylon, acetates and polyester.

Iron (Medium Heat)

Iron (Medium Heat)

Garments may be ironed using steam or dry, at Medium setting, 150°C (300°F).

Wool, Polyester mixtures

Iron (High Heat)

Iron (High Heat)

Garments may be ironed using steam or dry, at High setting, 200°C (390°F).

Cotton, linen viscose and derivatives of viscose.

Do Not Steam

Do Not Steam

Garment may be ironed, but only dry. Using steam may damage the garment.

Do Not Iron

Do Not Iron

Garment may not be ironed.

Plasticised materials & some Acrylics

WASH SYMBOLS

Machine Wash (Permanent Press)

This symbol solely refers to machine washing. The correct temperature for washing has been indicated by a number inside the tub or a series of dots.

Symbol

Meaning

Instruction

Material Types

Machine Wash (Permanent Press)

Machine Wash (Permanent Press)

Garments which have been permanently shaped (are wrinkle resistant) should be laundered in the “permanent press” cycle. This cycle normally involves a cold rinse before a reduced spin cycle.

Machine Wash (Gentle, Delicate)

Machine Wash (Gentle, Delicate)

Wash only on the gentle cycle, involving a reduced spinning cycle and gentle agitation.

Hand Wash Only

Hand Wash Only

Wash these garments using water, detergent or soap gently using your hands.

Do Not Wash

Do Not Wash

These garments cannot be safely washed. Usually, these will need to be dry cleaned.

TEMPERATURE RELATED

Machine Wash (NORMAL)

Machine Wash (NORMAL) When there is no temperature or dots in the symbol, and no line underneath, it is recommended the garment be washed with hottest available water temperature, as hot water washes better than cold.

Machine Wash (COLD)

Machine Wash (COLD)

Machine Wash (COLD) When 30C or one dot is shown, wash with gentle machine action for 1/2 load with a short spin. The recommended maximum temperature for washing the garment is 30°C (85°F).

Silk and printed acetate fabrics with colours not fast at 40o.

Machine Wash (WARM)

Machine Wash (WARM)

Machine Wash (WARM) When 40C or two dots are shown, wash with reduced action for 1/2 load capacity and short spin. Warm 40o wash with normal agitation, rinse and spin. The recommended maximum temperature for washing the garment is 40°C (105°F). Wool including blankets and wool mixes with cotton and rayon. Cotton linen and rayon where colours are fast at 40o but not at 60o.

Machine Wash (HOT)

Machine Wash (HOT)

Machine Wash (HOT) When 50C or three dots are shown, Hot wash with cold rinse and short spin or drip dry. The recommended maximum temperature for washing the garment is 50°C (120°F).

White nylon or white polyester/cotton mixes.

Machine Wash (HOT)

Machine Wash (HOT)

Machine Wash (HOT) When 60C or four dots are shown, wash on maximum agitation normal rinse and spin. The recommended maximum temperature for washing the garment is 60°C (140°F). Cotton, linen and rayon item which are both colour fast and have no special surface finishes

Machine Wash (HOT)

Machine Wash (HOT)

Machine Wash (HOT) When 70C or five dots are shown, wash with 1/2 load capacity and short spin. The recommended maximum temperature for washing the garment is 70°C (160°F).

White cottons and linens with delicate weaves prone to distortion.

Machine Wash (HOT)

Machine Wash (HOT)

Machine Wash (HOT) When 95C or six dots are shown, wash 95o to boil wash with maximum agitation, normal rinse and spin. The recommended maximum temperature for washing the garment is 95°C (200°F).

White cotton and linen with no special finishes

DRYING SYMBOLS

Symbol

Meaning

Instruction

Material Types

Tumble Dry (Permanent Press)

Tumble Dry (Permanent Press) Garments may be dried in a tumble dryer, but only on the “permanent press” setting.

Tumble Dry (Gentle)

Tumble Dry (Gentle) Garments may be dried in a tumble dryer, but only on the “gentle” setting.

Do Not Tumble Dry

Do Not Tumble Dry

Do Not Tumble Dry Garment may not be tumble dried. Usually one of the alternative symbols below will be supplied. Wool, acrylic and most flocked polyesters

Line Dry

Line Dry Hang the garment to dry. Any kind of fabric.

Drip Dry

Drip Dry Hang the garment to dry, without shaping or smoothing Soft polyesters & acrylics

Dry Flat

Dry Flat Lay the garment out flat to dry. Acrylics, Cashmere Loose knitted knitwear

Dry In Shade

Dry In Shade This symbol may appear in conjunction with Line or Drip Dry. Dry the garment in the shade, away from direct sunlight. Cotton, Linen and any vivid colour garment

Do Not Wring

Do Not Wring Do not wring the garment to dry Wool, acrylic, Silk and most flocked polyesters

TEMPERATURE RELATED

Tumble Dry (Normal)

Tumble Dry (Normal) Garment may be tumble dried at the hottest available setting.

Tumble Dry (Cold)

Tumble Dry (Cold) Garment may be tumble dried only at the cold “No Heat” or “Air Only” setting.

Tumble Dry (Low Heat)

Tumble Dry (Low Heat) Garment may be tumble dried only at a low heat. Polyester, nylon, acetates, loose weave garments and those with surface finishes.

Tumble Dry (Medium Heat)

Tumble Dry (Medium Heat) Garment may be tumble dried up to a medium heat only. Cotton and linen.

Tumble Dry (High Heat)

Tumble Dry (High Heat) Garment may be tumble dried at a high heat. Cotton and linen.

BLEACH SYMBOLS

Symbol

Meaning

Instruction

Material Types

Bleach As Needed

Bleach As Needed Any bleach (including chlorine) may be used when needed on the garment. Cotton, acrylic, polyester

Bleach As Needed

Bleach As Needed (Non-Chlorine Only) Only non-chlorine, colour-safe bleach may be used on these garments when needed. Some wools & silks, anything OK with chlorine bleach

Do Not Bleach

Do Not Bleach Garments with this symbol are not able to withstand any bleach. Wool, silk