Posted in Denim fabric, Fabric

Types of Washes for Denim

Stone Wash

  • Stone wash denim gained popularity in the 1960s and remain popular to this day. This type of denim is characterized by a lightly distressed, vintage look. The name comes from the fact that the original processing method involved rubbing pumice stones over the denim to wear down the fabric. But that method proved problematic due to environmental concerns over use of pumice and the fact that the stone often weakened the fabric too much, causing too much wear and tear.

    A newer stone wash method developed with the help of science. Special enzymes took the place of the pumice stone and work on degrading the material of the denim enough to look vintage but not to the point of destruction.

Acid Wash

  • Acid wash denim soared in popularity during the 1980s before dying out only to re-emerge, as a retro look, in the early 2000s. Despite the name, these splotch-faded denim products didn’t get the look from a bath of acid.

    Instead, the jeans earned their distinctive look when manufacturers first stripped the denim of its resin finish then applied chlorine to remove the indigo that gives classic denim its traditional blue hue. The result? Denim light in color with white splotches where the chlorine acted more aggressively.

Garment Wash

  • Patented in the late 1980s, garment wash developed as a means of lowering the cost of sturdy denim production. Garment wash jeans have a softer feel than other washes due to the use of warp yarns that are woven and rubbed together.

    The garment-wash finishing process involves the application of a phosphate-ester blend that lightly scours the denim. The fabric passes through two washing methods then dries under tension. The finishing process further entails a mechanism called a softener and sandpaper. The resulting product has a distressed look without weakening the fabric.

Posted in Fabric

Different Types of Denim Fabric

Cotton Serge

  • The traditional denim is 100 percent cotton serge. Additionally, denim is often blended with other fabrics.

Raw Denim

  • Raw denim is dark, unwashed fabric that is stiff and very durable. It fades with wear in certain areas, creating a natural distressed look. It also fades with washing.

Selvage Denim

  • The premium type of raw denim fabric is selvage denim, with tight weaving and natural edges that will not unravel. Selvage denim is more expensive than other raw denim.

Stretch Denim

  • The blend closest to pure denim is called stretch denim, which usually includes 2 or 3 percent Spandex material for a bit of give in the fabric.


  • Poly-denim blends look like a dressier denim, and are more lightweight, which makes them more convenient to wash and dry. They also are more resistant to wrinkling.


  • Denim is also sometimes blended with the plant fiber ramie, which reduces wrinkling and gives the fabric a softer feel.
Posted in Denim fabric, Fabric

The Difference Between Duck & Denim Fabric

Denim and duck are both variants of canvas made with different types of weaves and types of yarns. Historically, both of the fabrics have been used to fashion sturdy, long-lasting work wear. The relative comfort of denim, however, when compared to duck fabric, eventually led to its rise in popularity as a garment fabric. These days, duck is more commonly used in other applications.



  • Duck is one of the most durable fabrics, lighter than traditional canvas, and so tightly woven as to be waterproof. It is washable, and usually resistant to the effects of wind and snag. Denim is long and hard-wearing, though generally considered not as durable as duck, resists tears, and creases easily. Denim, unlike duck, softens with wear, and does not retain dyes as well.


  • Lighter weight duck fabric is often used to make stiff, industrial-strength utility clothing such as jackets and aprons, but the more common heavy weight duck is used to fashion awnings, tents, sails and hats. Denim is used to manufacture jeans, jackets, uniforms, overalls, caps and a variety of other types of clothing. It is also sometimes used in home furnishings, in bedspreads or furniture coverings.


  • Duck fabric has its origins in 18th century textile markets, and was originally made from linen as an improved sail making material. Denim received its name from the town Nimes in France, where it was largely manufactured prior to the 1800s. Called “serge de Nimes”, the fabric was used to make cheap clothing for laborers.


  • There are several types of duck fabric, including light and heavy duck, as well as army duck and blended duck. Army duck is fashioned to military specifications, and woven extraordinarily tightly to create superior durability, and always water and mildew proofed. It is one of the top quality fabrics used for tents. Denim comes in a wide range of types, including stretch denim, which is woven with 2 percent Spandex, and poly denim, in which the cotton is blended with polyester to produce a lighter, easier to clean fabric.


  • Duck fabric is made from cotton, and has a tight weave which makes the product somewhat stiff, accomplished by using two yarns in the warp and one in the weft. Denim fabric has a twill weave that includes an un-dyed weft and dyed warp, usually in indigo.
Posted in Costing, Garment

Sewing Production Calculations

(1) To calculate the number of machine necessary for daily production quantity in each process.

The number of machines necessary for each process,

      Time for each process X daily production quantity
Work time per dayExample: For dirt sewing

  • Process time …………………………..0.76 min.
  • Work time per shift …………………480 min.
  • Production quantity per shift….400 pcs.

0.76 X 400
So, The number of machines necessary for each process = …………………

The number machine necessary for sewing dirts = 0.63 = 1 machine (ANS)

(2) The number of the machine you need will be calculated by applying the value obtained in (1) to the configuration (process composition).

In each park and each kind of machine. When you establish process composition, consideration to the layout which allows the works in process to run smoothly between lines must be taken.

(3) Calculation method of the number of the required machine according to the different of production quantity per shift or the number of persons

The number of required machine should be originally calculated in the way as above-stated in (1).

But there is a simplified calculation method by using MACHNE LIST and BASIC DATA described in this document.

(4) Calculation method of the number of required machines according to the difference of production quantity per shift

The number of required machine,

                                                  Production quantity per shift after change
= The number of each machine X …………………………………………….
Production quantity per shiftEXAMPLE:

  • The number of DDL-555ON-7 –WB/CP230/AK-85…………………8 machines
  • Production quantity per shift …………………………………………200 pcs.
  • Production quantity per shift after change…………………………….120 pcs.

120 pcs
The number of required machine = 8 machine X …………
200 pcs

= 4.8 = 5 machine (ANS)

(5) Calculation method of the number of required machine according to the difference of persons
The number of required machine,

                                                 The machine of persons per shift after change
= The number of each machine X …………………………………………………
The number of personEXAMPLE:

  • The number of DDL-555ON-7-WB/CP230/AK-85 …………8 machines
  • Number of persons per shift ………….………………….45 persons
  • Number of persons per shift after change……………………100 persons

100 persons
The number of required machines = 8 machine X ……………
45 persons

= 17.7 = 18 machines (ANS)

(6) Calculation method of the production quantity per year according to the different of work days per year.  The production quantity per year is calculated on the basis of 280 days per year in this document. When the number of work days per year is different, use the following formula to obtain the production per year.

The production quantity per year,

                                      Work days per year after change
= Production per year X ……………………………..………
280 daysEXAMPLE: .

  • Production quantity per year …………………..……………56,000 PCS.
  • Work days per year after change ……………………………250 days

250 days
The production quantity per year = 56,000 pcs. X ……………..
280 days

= 50,000 pcs . (ANS)

(7) Method of the number of persons according to the difference of production quantity per shift

Production quantity per shift after change
The number of persons = Number of persons X ……………………………………………
Production quantity per shift


  • The number of persons ……………………………..45 Persons
  • Production quantity per shift …………………….500 pcs.
  • Production quantity per shift after change ………………………850 pcs.

850 pcs.
The number of persons = 45 persons X …………
500 pcs.

= 76.5 = 77 persons (ANS)

(8) Calculation method of production quantity per shift according to the different of the number of persons

From (formula 2),

Production quantity per shift,

                                                The number of persons after change
 = Production quantity per shift X ………………………………………..
The number of personsEXAMPLE:

  • Production quantity per shift in BASIC DATA ………………500 pcs.
  • The number of persons in BASIC DATA ……………………….75 persons
  • The number of person after change ……………………………100 persons

100 persons
The production quantity per shift = 500 pcs. X ……………………
75 persons

= 666.7 =  666 pcs. (ANS)

(9) Simplified calculation method of the required floor space according to the difference of total number of required equipment

The required floor space = (required floor space per 1 finishing equipment X total number of sewing equipment) + (required floor space per 1 finishing equipment X total number of finishing equipment)


  • Required floor space per 1 sewing equipment …………..about 6 m2
  • Total number of sewing equipment ……………………………187 machines
  • Required floor space per 1 finishing equipment …………about 10 m2
  • Total number of finishing equipment ………………………….20 machines

Required floor space,

= (6 m2 /1 machine X 187 machine) + (10 m2 /1 machine X 20 machines)

= 1,322 m2 (ANS)

Posted in Fabric


3D-Weaving is a complete new concept in case of weaving. The first method of 3D woven fabric denotes 3 Dimensional fabrics, that is length, width and breadth. In 3 Dimensional fabrics, the thickness is an important criterion. Ordinary fabrics also have length, width and breadth, but in the 3 Dimensional fabrics, the thickness is much more than ordinary fabric. The thickness is achieved by forming multiplayer using multi series of warp and multi series of weft, which are intersecting at regular 90o angle as in usual cloth weaving principle.
It cannot be performed with existing traditional methods and machines. It interlaces a multiple layer warp with multiple horizontal wefts and multiple vertical wefts producing directly shell, solid and tubular types of fully interlaced 3D fabrics with countless cross-sectional profiles.

First demonstrated in 1997, Dual-Directional (D-D) Shedding System is indispensable for performing 3D-weaving. This path breaking development has advanced the technology of weaving to a new dimension for the first time in its more than 27000 years of history.

Manufacturing Technology of 3D-Weaving
Special looms are required to operate the warp threads in 60o angle for weaving 3Dr-3 Directional fabrics. But the 3 Dimensional -3Dm- fabric can be woven by using ordinary loom with usual weaving principle-shedding, picking, beating – by having multi layers of warp and multi layers of weft. Even though the treble cloth with 3 series of warp and weft could be called 3Dm fabrics, in general, minimum 4 series of warp and weft are used in weaving to form several layers, one above the other to get the sufficient thickness resulting into 3 Dimensional fabric.
As per the principle of weft Tapestry fabric, to weave 3Dm fabrics, it is required to use one series of stitching warp and multi series of separating warp as per the number of layers to be formed.

As seen from the cross section, the stitching warp passes from top to bottom and bottom to top but all the separating warp lies almost straight and hence the stitching warp takes up more length than the separating warp. Therefore, the stitching warp is brought from a loose tension beam and the entire separating warp is brought from another normal tension beam.

The following points are to be understood from both the cross sections: –

The first layer weft (Face) – shown as “a” – lies between the stitching warp (shown as 1) and first separating warp series (shown as 3).
The second layer of weft (Middle) – shown as “b”- lies between the first and second separating warp series (shown as 3 and 4).

Application of 3D Weaving Fabric
A new method has been developed for the manufacture of bifurcated prosthesis used in medical applications and they are used to replace the defective blood vessels in patients so as to improve blood circulation.

The 3D fabrics have recently entered the medical field. Their specific area of application is in the weaving of vascular prosthesis. Vascular prosthesis are surgically implantable materials. They are used to replace the defective blood vessels in patients so as to improve blood circulation. Conventional types of prosthesis were made from air corps parachute cloth, vignon sailcloth, and other types of clothing materials.

Materials such as nylon, Teflon, orlon, stainless steel, glass, and Dacron polyester fibre have been found to be highly suitable for the manufacture of prosthesis. These materials were found to be significantly stable with regard to resistance to degradation, strength, and were not adversely affected by other factors. Dacron polyester, which has bio-compatibility and high tensile strength, is being used over a period of time as suture thread or artificial ligaments.

Posted in Fabric
Textile Manufacturing Process:
Textile manufacturing or production is a very complex process. The range of textile manufacturing is so long. It starts from fiber to finished products.

Process Flow Chart of Textile Manufacturing



Dyeing +Printing+ Finishing

Garments Manufacturing

Flow Chart of Spinning






Roving Manufacturing

Ring Spinning

Flow Chart of Weaving

Yarn from spinning section

Doubling and Twisting





Winding on weavers beam


Flow Chart of Dyeing

Inspection of grey cloth


















Flow Chart of Printing

Inspection of grey cloth



















Flow Chart of  Garment Manufacturing

Design / Sketch
Pattern Design

Sample Making


Marker Making





Pressing/ Finishing

Final Inspection



Posted in Fabric

Glossary of textile manufacturing

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The manufacture of textiles is one of the oldest of human technologies. In order to make textiles, the first requirement is a source of fibre from which a yarn can be made, primarily by spinning. (Both fibre and fiber are used in this article.) The yarn is processed by knitting or weaving, which turns yarn into cloth. The machine used for weaving is the loom. For decoration, the process of colouring yarn or the finished material is dyeing. For more information of the various steps, see textile manufacturing.

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A measure of how much water a fabric can absorb.
Acetate is a synthetic fiber.
Acrylic fiber is a synthetic polymer fiber that contains at least 85% acrylonitrile.
Aida cloth
Aida cloth is a coarse open-weave fabric traditionally used for cross-stitch.
Alnage is the official supervision of the shape and quality of manufactured woolen cloth.
Alpaca is a name given to two distinct things. It is primarily a term applied to the wool of the Peruvian alpaca. It is, however, more broadly applied to a style of fabric originally made from alpaca fiber but now frequently made from a similar type of fiber.
Angora refers to the hair of either the Angora goat or the Angora rabbit, or the fabric made from Angora rabbit; see Angora wool. (Fabric made from angora goat is mohair.)
Angora wool
Angora wool is a generic term for either Mohair if the hair is from an Angora goat or Angora fabric if the hair is from an Angora rabbit.
Applique is a technique in which pieces of fabric are sewn onto a foundation piece of fabric to create designs.
Aramid fiber is a fire-resistant and strong synthetic fiber
An argyle pattern is one containing diamonds in a sort of diagonal checkerboard pattern.

[edit] B

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Backstrap loom
Backstrap looms, as the name implies, are tied around the weaver’s waist on one end and around a stationary object such as a tree, post, or door on the other. Tension can be adjusted simply by leaning back. Backstrap looms are very portable, since they can simply be rolled up and carried.
Baize is a coarse woollen or cotton cloth, often coloured red or green.
Ballistic nylon
Ballistic nylon is a thick, tough synthetic fabric used for a variety of applications.
Batik is an Indonesian traditional word and refers to a generic wax-resist dyeing technique used on fabric.
Combination of two kinds of Weave, Namely Plain and Drill.
The bias direction of a piece of woven fabric, usually referred to simply as “the bias“, is at 45 degrees to its warp and weft threads. Every piece of woven fabric has two biases, perpendicular to each other.
In sewing, binding is used as both a noun and a verb to refer to finishing a seam or hem of a garment, usually by rolling or pressing then stitching on an edging or trim.
A Blend is a fabric or yarn made up of more than one type of fiber.
Bobbin lace
Bobbin lace is a delicate lace that uses wound spools of thread (the bobbins) to weave together the shapes in the lace.
Bobbinet is a tulle netting with hexagonal shaped holes, traditionally used as a base for embroidery and lingerie.
Bombazine is a fabric originally made of silk or silk and wool, and now also made of cotton and wool or of wool alone. It is twilled or corded and used for dress-material.
To braid is to interweave or twine three or more separate strands of one or more materials in a diagonally overlapping pattern.
Broadclothmaterial of superior quality.
Brocade is the term for forming patterns in cloth with a supplementary weft.
Buckram is a stiff cloth, made of cotton or linen, which is used to cover, and protect, a book, and although is more expensive than its look-a-like, Brella, is stronger and resistant to cockroaches eating it. Buckram can also be used to stiffen clothes.
Burlap is a type of cloth often used for sacks.

[edit] C

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Calico is a type of fabric made from unbleached, and often not fully processed, cotton. Also referred to a type of Printing.
Cambric is a lightweight cotton cloth used as fabric for lace and needlework.
Camel’s Hair
Camel‘s Hair is a natural fiber from the camel. Camel hair can produce a variety of different coarseness of yarn. This fiber is a novelty fiber spun by hand-spinners.
Canvas is an extremely heavy-duty fabric used for making sails, tents, marquees, and other functions where sturdiness is required. It is also popularly used on fashion handbags.
Canvas work
Canvas work is embroidery on canvas.
Carding is the processing of brushing raw or washed fibers to prepare them as textiles.
A carpet‘ is any loom-woven, felted textile or grass floor covering.
Cashmere is wool from the Cashmere goat.
Cellulose; this fiber processed to make cellophane and rayon, and more recently Modal, a textile derived from beechwood cellulose.
Cheesecloth is a loosewoven cotton cloth, such as is used in pressing cheese curds.
Chiffon is a sheer fabric made of silk or rayon.
Chino cloth
Chino cloth is a kind of twill fabric, usually made primarily from cotton.
Chintz is calico cloth printed with flowers and other devices in different colors. It was originally of Eastern manufacture.
Coir is a coarse fibre extracted from the fibrous outer shell of a coconut.
A term used to describe whether the colors bleed or not in washing.
Cord is twisted fibre, usually intermediate between rope and string. It is also used as a shortened form of corduroy.
Corduroy is a durable cloth.
Cotton is a soft fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant, a shrub native to the tropical and subtropical regions of both the Old World and the New World. The fibre is most often spun into thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile.
Crepe is a silk fabric of a gauzy texture, having a peculiar crisp or crimpy appearance.
Crazy quilt
Crazy quilting is often used to refer to the textile art of patchwork and is sometimes used interchangeably with that term.
Crinoline was originally a stiff fabric with a weft of horse-hair and a warp of cotton or linen thread. The fabric first appeared around 1830.
Cross-stitch is a popular form of counted-thread embroidery in which X-shaped stitches are used to form a picture.
The word crochet describes the process of creating fabric from a length of cord, yarn, or thread with a hooked tool.
Crochet hook
A crochet hook is a type of needle, usually with a hook at one end, used to draw thread through knotted loops.
The cro-hook is a special double-ended crochet hook used to make double-sided crochet. Because the hook has two ends, two colours of thread can be handled at once and freely interchanged.

[edit] D

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Damask is a fabric of silk, wool, linen, cotton, or synthetic fibers, with a pattern formed by weaving. Today, it generally denotes a linen texture richly figured in the weaving with flowers, fruit, forms of animal life, and other types of ornament.
Darning mushroom
A darning mushroom is a tool which can be used for darning clothes, particularly socks. The sock can be stretched over the top of the (curved) mushroom, and gathered-tightly-around the stalk.
Denim denotes a rugged cotton twill textile.
Dimity is a lightweight, sheer cotton fabric having at least two warp threads thrown into relief to form fine cords.
Dobby loom
Dobby loom is a loom in which each harness can be manipulated individually. This is in contrast to a treadle loom, where the harnesses are attached to a number of different treadles depending on the weave structure.
Double weave
Double weave is a type of advanced weave. It is done by interlacing two or more sets of warps with two or more sets of filling yarns.
Dowlas is the name given to a plain cloth, similar to sheeting, but usually coarser.
how durable a fabric or yarn is.
Dye is used to color fabric. There are two main types: Natural dyes, and synthetic dyes. The process is called Dyeing.
Dye lot
Dye lot is a number that identifies yarns dyed in the same vat at the same time. Subtle differences can appear between different batches of the same color yarn from the same manufacturer.

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Embroidery is an ancient variety of decorative needlework in which designs and pictures are created by stitching strands of some material on to a layer of another material. See also: Machine embroidery.
Epinglé fabric
A type of velvet fabric woven on a wire loom or épinglé loom. The épinglé velvet is specific by the fact that both loop pile and cut pile can be integrated into the same fabric. The art of épinglé weaving in Europe originates from Lucca (Italy) and later Venice and Genua. Actually the term ‘Genua velvet’ is still in use. The Flemish region of Kortrijk and Waregem (Belgium) is the area whereupon today the technique of épinglé weaving is still very actual. The fabric finds it application mostly in upholstery, although in medieval times is was used as apparel for princes and kings as well as for bishops, cardinals and the pope.
Even-weave or evenweave fabric is used in counted-thread embroidery and is characterized by Warp and weft threads of the same size.
Grommets and eyelets are metal, plastic, or rubber rings that are inserted into a hole made through another material. They may be used to reinforce the hole, to shield something from the sharp edges of the hole, or both.

[edit] F

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Felt is a non-woven cloth that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing fibers. The fibers form the structure of the fabric.
The process of making felt is called felting.
Fiber or fibre (see spelling differences) is a class of materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to pieces of thread. Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials. They can be spun into filaments, thread, or rope. They can be used as a component of composite materials. They can also be matted into sheets to make products such as paper or felt.
A filament is a fine, thinly spun thread, fiber, or wire.
See weft
Fishnet is a material with an open, diamond shaped knit.
Flannel is a cloth that is commonly used to make clothing and bedsheets. It is usually made from either wool, wool and cotton, or wool and synthetic fabric.
Flax fiber is soft, lustrous and flexible. It is stronger than cotton fiber but less elastic. The best grades are used for linen fabrics such as damasks, lace and sheeting. Coarser grades are used for the manufacturing of twine and rope.
Frieze is a coarse woollen cloth with a nap on one side, that was raised by scrubbing it to raise curls of fibre (French: frisé). In the 19th century rough cheap frieze was made of wool mixed with shoddy (see Shoddy).
Fulling is a step in clothmaking which involves the cleansing of cloth (particularly wool) to get rid of oils, dirt, and other impurities.
Fustian is a term for a variety of heavy twilled woven cotton fabrics, chiefly prepared for menswear. Usually dyed in a dark shade. Declined in popularity from 1813, being replaced by harder wearing and better quality wool cloths.

[edit] G

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Gabardine is a tough, tightly woven fabric often used to make suits, overcoats and trousers. The fibre used to make the fabric is traditionally worsted (a woolen yarn), but may also be cotton, synthetic or mixed. The fabric is smooth on one side and has a diagonally ribbed surface on the other.
A gauge is a set number of rows per inch (in knitting) or the thread-count of a woven fabric that helps the knitter determine whether they have the right size knitting needles or a weaver if the cloth is tight enough.
Gante is a cloth made from cotton or tow warp and jute weft. It is largely used for bags for sugar and similar material, and has the appearance of a fine hessian cloth.
A very light, sheer, fine woven fabric.
Genova velvet
A type of velvet where in Jacquard patterns are woven into the ground fabric and where the pile is made of a combination of cut and uncut (loop) pile. This fabric is also known as Venetian velvet, or more generally, as épinglé velvet. In the actual terminology of furnishing fabrics it is mostly named with its French name “velours de Gênes“.
This kind of fabric is made on a wire loom or épinglé loom.
A geotextile is a synthetic permeable textile.
Gingham is a fabric made from dyed cotton yarn.
Glass fiber
Fiberglass is material made from extremely fine fibers of glass. It is widely used in the manufacture of insulation and textiles.
A gossamer is a very light, sheer, gauze-like fabric, popular for white wedding dresses and decorations.
Grogram is a coarse fabric of silk mixed with wool or with mohair and often stiffened with gum.

[edit] H

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Common component of a loom used to separate warp threads for passage of the weft. Commonly made of cord or wire.
To hem a piece of cloth (in sewing), a garment worker folds up a cut edge, folds it up again, and then sews it down. The process of hemming thus completely encloses the cut edge in cloth, so that it cannot ravel.
A hem is also the edge of cloth hemmed in this manner.
The main uses of hemp fibre are rope, sacking, carpet, nets and webbing. Hemp is also being used in increasing quantities in paper manufacturing. The cellulose content is about 70%.
Huckaback is a type of coarse absorbent cotton or linen fabric used for making towels.

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Ikat is a style of weaving that uses a tie-dye process on either the warp or weft before the threads are woven to create a pattern or design. A Double Ikat is when both the warp and the weft are tie-dyed before weaving.
Intarsia is a knitting technique used to create patterns with multiple colours.
Interfacing is a common term for a variety of materials used on the unseen or “wrong” side of fabrics in sewing.

[edit] J

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Jacquard loom
The Jacquard loom was the first machine to use punch cards. It uses punched cards to control the pattern being woven. It is a form of dobby loom, where individual harnesses can be raised and lowered independently.
Jamdani is a kind of fine cloth made in Bangladesh.
Jute is a long, soft, shiny plant fibre that can be spun into coarse, strong threads.
Jute is one of the cheapest natural fibres, and is second only to cotton in amount produced and variety of uses. Jute fibres are composed primarily of the plant materials cellulose and lignin.

[edit] K

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Knit fabrics
Knit fabrics are fabrics that were produced through the process of knitting.
Knitting needle gauge
A knitting needle gauge makes is used to determine the size of a knitting needle. Some also double for crochet hooks. Most needles come with the size written on the needle, but many needles (like double-pointed needles) tend to not be labeled. Also, with wear and time the label often wears off.
Needle gauges can be made of any material, and are often made for metal and plastic. They tend to be about 3 by 5 inches. They contain holes of various sizes, and often have a ruler along the edge for determining the gauge of a sample.

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Lace-making is an ancient craft. A lace fabric is lightweight openwork fabric, patterned, either by machine or by hand, with open holes in the work. The holes can be formed via removal of threads or cloth from a previously woven fabric, but more often lace is built up from a single thread and the open spaces are created as part of the lace fabric.
Lamé is a type of brocaded clothing fabric with inwoven metal threads, typically of gold or silver, giving it a metallic sheen.
Lawn is a fine linen or cotton cloth.
Linen is a material made from the fibers of the flax plant. Linen produced in Ireland is called Irish linen. Linens are fabric household goods, such as pillowcases and towels.
Loden is water-resistant material for clothing made from sheep wool.
The Loom is a machine used for weaving fabric.
Lucet is a method of cordmaking or braiding which is believed to date back to the Viking era. Lucet cord is square, strong, and slightly springy. It closely resembles knitted I-cord or the cord produced on a knitting spool. Lucet cord is formed by a series of loops, and will therefore unravel if cut.

[edit] M

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Macrame or macramé is a form of textile-making using knotting rather than weaving or knitting. Its primary knots are the square knot and forms of hitching (full hitch and double half hitches).
Mercerized cotton
Mercerization is a treatment for cotton fabric and thread mostly employed to give cotton a lustrous appearance.
Merino is the Spanish name for a breed of sheep, and hence applied to a woolen fabric.
A mesh is similar to fabric or a web in that it has many connected or weaved pieces. In clothing, a mesh is often defined as fabric that has a large number of closely-spaced holes, such as is common practice for modern sports jerseys.
Metallic fiber
Metallic fibers are fibers used in textiles which are either composed of metal, or fibers of other materials with a metal coating.
Their uses include decoration and the reduction of static electricity.
Microfibre is a term for fibres with strands thinner than one denier. Fabrics made with microfibres are exceptionally soft and hold their shape well.
Millinery is women’s hats and other articles sold by a milliner, or the profession or business of designing, making, or selling hats for women.
Mohair is a silk-like fabric made from the hair of the Angora goat. It is durable, light and warm, although some people find it uncomfortably itchy.
Fibrous woollen material generated from waste fabric, particularly tightly woven cloths and rags. See also: shoddy.
Muslin is a type of finely-woven cotton fabric, introduced to Europe from the Middle East in the 17th century. It was named for the city where it was first made, Mosul in what is now Iraq.

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Nainsook is a fine, soft muslin fabric, often to used to make babies clothing.
Nap is a term for the raised surface of certain cloth, such as flannel.
Needlepoint is a form of canvas work created on a mesh canvas. The stitching threads used may be wool, silk, or rarely cotton. Stitches may be plain, covering just one mesh intersection with a single orientation, or fancy, such as Bargello. Plain stitches, known as Tent stitches, may be worked as basketweave or half cross.
Needlework is another term for the handicraft of decorative sewing and textile arts. Anything that uses a needle for construction can be called needlework.
Net is a device made by fibers woven in a grid-like structure, as in fishing net, a soccer goal, a butterfly net, or the court divider in tennis
Nonwoven fabric
Non-woven textiles are those which are neither woven nor knit, for example felt. Non-wovens are typically not strong (unless reinforced by a backing), and do not stretch. They are cheap to manufacture.
Novelty yarn
Novelty yarn
Nylon is a synthetic polymer, a plastic. Nylon fibres are used to make many synthetic fabrics and women’s stockings.

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Oilcloth was, traditionally, heavy cotton or linen cloth with a linseed oil coating: it was semi-water-proof. The most familiar use was for brightly printed kitchen tablecloths. Dull colored oilcloth was used for bedrolls, sou’westers, and tents. By the late 1950’s, oilcloth became a synonym for vinyl (polyvinyl chloride) bonded to a flanneled cloth.

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Paisley is a droplet-shaped vegetal motif, similar to half of the T’ai Chi symbol, the Indian bodhi tree leaf, or the mango tree. The design originated in India and spread to Scotland when British soldiers brought home cashmere shawls.
Patchwork is a form of needlework or craft that involves sewing together small pieces of fabric and stitching them together into a larger design, which is then usually quilted, or else tied together with pieces of yarn at regular intervals, a practice known as tying. Patchwork is traditionally ‘pieced’ by hand, but modern quiltmakers often use a sewing machine instead.
Percale refers to a closely woven, high thread count, cotton fabric often used for sheets and clothing.
Persian weave
Persian weave is a method of weave used in jewelry and other art forms.
Pile knit
Pile knit
Pile weave
Pile weave
Plaid is a Scots language word meaning blanket, usually referring to patterned woollen cloth
Plain weave
Plain weave
Plied yarn
Plied yarn is yarn that has been plied, with the process called plying.
Plush is a fabric having a cut nap or pile the same as fustian or velvet.
Polyester is a synthetic fiber
Poplin is a heavy, durable fabric that has a ribbed appearance. It is made with wool, cotton, silk, rayon, or any mixture of these. The ribs run across the fabric from selvage to selvage. They are formed by using coarse filling yarns in a plain weave.
Purl stitch
a commonly used stitch in knitting

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Qalamkari is a type of hand-painted or block-printed textile, produced in various places in India.
Qiviut is the wool of the musk ox.
Quilting is a method of sewing or tying two layers of cloth with a layer of insulating batting in between. A bed covering or similar large rectangular piece of quilting work is called a quilt.

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Rayon is a transparent fibre made of processed cellulose. Cellulose fibres from wood or cotton are dissolved in alkali to make a solution called viscose, which is then extruded through a nozzle, or spinneret, into an acid bath to reconvert the viscose into cellulose. A similar process, using a slit instead of a hole, is used to make cellophane.
Rib knit
Rib knit
Rib weave
Rib weave
A rolag is a loose woolen roll of fibers that results from using handcards.
A roving is a long rope of fibers where all of the fibers are going parallel to the roving.
A rug is a form of carpet. It is usually smaller than a carpet. See also: rug making

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Sateen is a fabric formed with a satin weave where the floats are perpendicular to the selvage of the goods.
A Satin is a cloth that typically has a glossy surface and a dull back. It is formed by a sequence of broken twill floats in either the warp or weft system, which respectively identify the goods as either a satin or a sateen.
Satin weave
A satin is a broken twill weaving technique that forms floats on one side of the fabric. If a satin is woven with the floats parallel to the selvedge of the goods, the corresponding fabric is termed a “satin.” If the floats are perpendicular to the selvedge of the goods, the fabric is termed a ‘sateen.'”
A seam, in sewing, is the line where two pieces of fabric are held together by thread.
Seam ripper
A seam ripper is a small tool used for unpicking stitches.
Selvage or Selvedge
The woven edge portion of a fabric parallel to the warp is called selvage.
Serge is a type of twill fabric that has diagonal lines or ridges on both sides, made with a two-up, two-down weave. The worsted variety is used in making military uniforms, suits, great and trench coats. Its counterpart, silk serge, is used for linings. French serge is a softer, finer variety. The word is also used for a high quality woolen woven.
Serging is a sewing term, the binding off of an edge of cloth.
Sewing is an ancient craft involving the stitching of cloth, leather, animal skins, furs, or other materials, using needle and thread. Its use is nearly universal among human populations and dates back to Paleolithic times (30,000 BC). Sewing predates the weaving of cloth.
Shag (fabric) is typically used to make a deep-pile carpets. This is the oldest use of the term. Shag carpet is sometimes evoked as an example of the aesthetic from the culture of the U.S. 1970s. Also used to make carpets for mariners.
In weaving, the shed is the gap between yarns on a loom when one or more, but not all, of the harnesses are raised.
Sheer is a semi-transparent and flimsy cloth.
Recycled or remanufactured wool which is of inferior quality compared to the original wool. Historically generated from loosely woven materials. Benjamin Law invented shoddy and mungo, as such, in 1813. He was the first to organise, on a larger scale, the activity of taking old clothes and grinding them down into a fibrous state that could be re-spun into yarn. The shoddy industry was centred on the towns of Batley, Morley, Dewsbury and Ossett in West Yorkshire, and concentrated on the recovery of wool from rags. The importance of the industry can be gauged by the fact that even in 1860 the town of [Batley] was producing over 7000 tonnes of shoddy. At the time there were 80 firms employing a total of 550 people sorting the rags. These were then sold to shoddy manufacturers of which there were about 130 in the West Riding.

The opal effect achieved on a fabric by dyeing the warp and weft threads different colours. The yarns are dyed first and then woven. When looking at the fabric from various angles it appears to alter in colour, this is more obvious in lustrous fabrics and more so in certain types of weaves.

A shuttle in weaving is a device used with a loom that is thrown or passed back and forth between the threads of the warp in order to weave in the weft.
Silk is a natural protein fiber that can be woven into textiles. It is obtained from the cocoon of the silkworm larva, in the process known as sericulture, which kills the larvae. The shimmering appearance for which it is prized comes from the fibres triangular prism-like structure, which allows silk cloth to refract incoming light at different angles.
Sisal or sisal hemp is an agave Agave sisalana that yields a stiff fiber used in making rope. (The term may refer either to the plant or the fiber, depending on context.) It is not really a variety of hemp, but named so because hemp was for centuries a major source for fiber, so other fibers were sometimes named after it.
Skein is when a length of yarn is bundled in a loose roll rather than put on a cone (as you would purchase from store)- usually done if yarn is going to a dye vat or needs a treatment in a manufacturing/knitting mill environment.
Spandex fiber
Spandex or elastane is a synthetic fiber known for its exceptional elasticity (stretchability). It is stronger and more durable than rubber, its major plant competitor. It was invented in 1959 by DuPont, and when first introduced it revolutionized many areas of the clothing industry.
Spinning is the process of creating yarn (or thread, rope, cable) from various raw fiber materials.
Staple is the raw material, or its length and quality, of fiber from which textiles are made.
Stuff is a course cloth, sometimes made with a linen warp and worsted weft.
The Super grading system is used to grade the quality of wool fabric. The higher the number, the more yarn is packed in per square inch, therefore all things being equal a super 120s yarn is better than super 100s.

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Tablet weaving
Tablet weaving is a process of weaving where tablets, also called ‘cards’, are used to create the shed the weft is passed through. It is generally used to make narrow work such as belts or straps.
Tactel is the brand name of a man-made fibre made from nylon.
Taffeta is a type of fabric, often used for fancy dresses.
Tapestry is a form of textile art. It is woven by hand on a weaving-loom. The chain thread is the carrier in which the coloured striking thread is woven. In this way, a colourful pattern or image is created. Most weavers use a naturally based chain thread made out of linen or wool. The striking threads can be made out of silk, wool, gold or silver, but can also be made out of any form of textile.
Tarlatan is a starched, open-weave fabric, much like cheese cloth. It is used to wipe the ink off a plate during the intaglio inking process. The open weave allows for the tarlatan to pick up a large quantity of ink. The stiffness imparted by the starch helps prevent the fabric from taking the ink out of the incised lines.
A tassel is a ball-shaped bunch of plaited or otherwise entangled threads from which at one end protrudes a cord on which the tassel is hung, and which may have loose, dangling threads at the other end.
Tatting is a technique for handcrafting lace that can be documented approximately to the early 19th century.
Terry cloth
Terry cloth is a type of cloth with loops sticking out. Most bath towels are examples of Terry cloth.
A thimble is a protective shield worn on the finger or thumb.
Threads per inch (TPI)
Threads per inch is the measurement of the number of threads per inch of material, such as fabric, or metal in the case of screws and bolts.
Tissue is a fine woven fabric or gauze.
Trim or trimming in clothing and home decorating is applied ornament such as gimp, passementerie, ribbon, ruffles, or, as a verb, to apply such ornament.
Tulle is a netting, which is often starched, made of various fibers, including silk, nylon, and rayon, that is most commonly used for veils, gowns (particularly wedding gowns) and ballet tutus.
Tweed is a type of fabric using the twill weave.
Twill tape
Twill tape is a flat twillwoven ribbon of cotton, linen, polyester, or wool.
Twill weave
Twill is a type of fabric woven with a pattern of diagonal parallel ribs. It is made by passing the weft threads over one warp thread and then under two or more warp threads. Examples of twill fabric are gabardine, tweed and serge.

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Velour is a textile, a knitted counterpart of velvet.
It combines the stretchy properties of knits such as spandex with the rich appearance and feel of velvet.
Velvet is a type of tufted fabric in which the cut threads are very evenly distributed, with a short dense pile, giving it its distinct feel. Velvet can be made from any fiber. It is woven on a special loom that weaves two piece of velvet at the same time. The two pieces are then cut apart and the two lengths of fabric are wound on separate take-up rolls.
Velveteen is a cotton cloth made in imitation of velvet. The term is sometimes applied to a mixture of silk and cotton. Some velveteens are a kind of fustian, having a rib of velvet pile alternating with a plain depression. The velveteen, trade varies a good deal with the fashions that control the production of velvet.

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The warp is the set of lengthwise threads attached to a loom before weaving begins, and through which the weft is woven.
Warp knit
Knit fabric in which intermeshing loops are positioned in a lengthwise, or warp, direction. The fabric has a flatter, closer, less elastic structure than most weft knits and is run-resistant.
Water repellent
Water repellent
Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn made of fibre called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. This cloth can be plain (in one color or a simple pattern), or it can be woven in decorative or artistic designs, including tapestries.
The weft is the yarn that is woven back and forth through the warp to make cloth.
Weft knit
Weft knit
Wilton Carpet
Wilton carpet is produced on a specific type of weaving machine called wire loom. Wilton carpets are pile carpets whereby the pile is formed by inserting steel rods in the pile warps of the fabric. After extraction of the rods the pile is looped (in case straight wires have been used) or cut (in case cutting wires are used). Wilton carpet is generally considered as high quality and is used for heavy duty applications.
Wire loom,
Weaving machine for pile fabrics or velvets whereby the pile is made by weaving steel rods or wires into the fabrics. When the wires are extracted the warp ends that have been woven over the wires remain as loops on top of the fabric or will form cut pile if the wire is equipped with a cutting blade. This technique is also known as “épinglé weaving”. A wire loom in a much wider version (up to 5 meters of width) and in heavier construction is used for the manufacturing of carpets is called a “WILTON” loom, and the carpets made on such a loom are known as “Wilton Carpets
The woof is the same thing as the weft.
Wool is the fiber derived from the hair of domesticated animals, usually sheep.
Woolen is the name of a yarn and cloth usually made from wool.
Worsted fabric
Worsted is the name of a yarn and cloth usually made from wool. The yarn is well twisted and spun of long staple wool (though nowadays also medium and short fibres are used). The wool is combed so that the fibres lie parallel.
Woven fabric
A woven is a cloth formed by weaving. It only stretches in the bias directions (between the warp and weft directions), unless the threads are elastic. Woven cloth usually frays at the edges, unless measures are taken to counter this, such as the use of pinking shears or hemming.

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Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibers, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving and ropemaking. Yarn can be made from any number of synthetic or natural fibers.

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Zibeline is a thick, soft fabric with a long nap.